The birth of the quartz timepiece
Using the stable high-frequency produced when a constant voltage is applied to a quartz crystal, timepieces vastly more accurate than mechanical timepieces were developed and became mainstream.
Even more precise than quartz timepieces based on the vibration frequency of a quartz crystal, next to arrive on the scene were atomic clocks, based on atomic frequency.
The pursuit of precision in quartz timepieces
Quartz timepieces provided far greater precision than conventional mechanical timepieces, and from the 1970s on, all manufacturers of timepieces have engaged in the pursuit of even higher precision through technological advancements.
Multifunctionality of quartz timepieces
From the 1970s through the 1980s, with the integration of CMOS-ICs, many quartz timepieces incorporating new functions entered the market in rapid succession.
Alternative power sources for quartz watches
To eliminate the trouble of changing batteries in quartz watches that run on battery power, and to help conserve resources and the environment, watchmakers developed watches that don't require battery changes.
In 1999, Seiko launched the Spring Drive, the world's first watch to combine a mainspring, to drive the mechanism and generate electrical energy, with quartz control.